Actually in idle mode, the mobile always prefers to remain with or move to the best serving cell. The best cell is decided on the basis of uplink and downlink path balance in the cells. This balance is calculated by GSM defined C1 calculations. C1 calculations force the mobile to move to the strongest cell. In certain cases, such as macro-micro cell architecture, optimisation may require that in certain areas the mobile not remain in the best cell, but instead remain in a cell depending on traffic loading. C2 parameters provide the option of adding fixed positive or negative offsets to the C1 calculation in each cell. So, although C1 might be better for a neighbour cell, the application of C2 parameters could delay reselection. C2 parameters also allow the mobile to apply temporary offsets for a period known as penalty time, which helps reduce Ping-Pong effects. With the help of carefully done drive test these parameters like offset or penalty time for handovers can also be checked and verified.