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Reply To: MFC/R2 – Summary

Wallis Dudhnath

DC signalling has its origins way back in telephony. Battery signalling was extensively employed in early manual systems as a method of interconnecting
switchboards. For CPE to access Switching resources DC Line Signalling was a main staple. Now we have MF4. The last “mile” of the local loop is the last part of a Digital Network that is analogue. End to end ISDN was an earlier attempt to have a full Digital Network.