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If you look at a Computer there is a clock that is used to keep the whole system synchronised. The clock helps to operate the Fetch-Decode-Execute cycle. This is a property of a Digital system.
As a Telecommunication Network has evolved with PDH, ISDN, ATM, Ethernet, SDH, Digital Stored Program Control nodes, GSM, 3G, 4G and now 5G / IOT there has to be a tight control with how the Network is clocked and Synchronised.
It is very easy for a node in the Network to become despotic and to race ahead with it’s own clock frequency. Phase Locked Loop (PLL) is used to reign in a despotic node. This will cause issues as described in my earlier post.
To help a Network designer uses a stratum approach to source a stable (e.g. atomic clock) Synchronisation signal that can be cascaded to the lower strata.
Please keep sending your questions.
VBR/ Wallis Dudhnath