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CAMEL Phase-1,2,3,4 - ?????

Wallis Dudhnath - 15th July 2017  (09:40 GMT)

Hi Nidhin,

Not many Markets have deployed CAMEL Phase 4.0. CAP V4 is the last major work that has been done with the CAMEL standard. You can link CAMEL with AOC type Services. For Realtime Display of Balance (before, during and after a session) it is better to use Diameter. It is geared up for MSCC bundles.
For Media/VoLTE/ViLTE/etc.., SIP/Diameter is now the way forward.

VBR/ Wallis Dudhnath

Nidhin Kaladharan - 13th July 2017  (11:38 GMT)

Can Real-Time Display Balance be achieved by CAP 4 capability?

Wallis Dudhnath - 15th March 2017  (14:34 GMT)

CAMEL Phase 4 Summary:-

- Interactions with Optimal Routing;
- Call Party Handling;
- DTMF Mid call procedure for Mobile Originated and Mobile Terminating calls;
- Inclusion of flexible tone injection;
- Provision of location information of called subscriber;
- Provide location information during ongoing call;
- CAMEL control over MT SMS;
- Notification of GPRS mobility management to CSE;
- Inclusion of ODB data in Any Time Modification;
- Enhancement of Any Time Interrogation and Provide Subscriber Information for PS Domain;
- Mobile Number Portability database interrogation;
- Criteria for the provision of location information during ongoing call;
- Enhanced Dialled Services;
- Enhancement to Establish Temporary Connection;
- CAMEL control of trunk originated calls.

Wallis Dudhnath - 9th March 2017  (14:38 GMT)

Look at the following book from Wiley:

CAMEL: Intelligent Networks for the GSM, GPRS and UMTS Network.

It provides a very good overview of CAMEL - from Phase1 to Phase4.

CAMEL Phase4.0 was standardised so that it can work with IMS. Last major standardisation work that was done with CAMEL was during the early 2000s.

VBR/ Wallis Dudhnath

ASHEESH SHARMA - 7th March 2017  (06:08 GMT)


Wallis Dudhnath - 29th October 2016  (13:15 GMT)

CAMEL Standards (Phase 1-4) were standardised well before Diameter (DCCA), Gy, Gx, Sy, Policy (PCRF), etc..

For online charging the basic functionality as now defined by IETF Diameter Credit Control Application (DCCA) is used. The basic structure follows a mechanism where the online client (CTF) requests resource allocation and reports credit control information to 3GPP OCS (Online Charging System).

CAP V3 can be used for MO-SMS Charging (CAP V4 supports MT-SMS).

VBR/ Wallis Dudhnath

Antoine Egho - 29th October 2016  (04:00 GMT)

what is the use of CAPv3 for Data Charging when VPLMN SGSN will always contact HPLMN GGSN, which nowadays are connected to OCS thru Gy?

Wallis Dudhnath - 14th July 2016  (10:27 GMT)

Thanks Prashant,
Please let me know if you need any further inputs for IN / CAMEL.

VBR/ Wallis Dudhnath

Prashant M Hullatti - 13th July 2016  (13:21 GMT)


Wallis Dudhnath - 5th July 2015  (12:01 GMT)

CAMEL - Customised Application Enhanced Logic - has
an association with IN - Intelligent Networks.

As IN Services expanded with GSM there was an issue with Roaming.
The use-cases were not standardised and this meant IN Services in the
HPLMN could not be used in the VPLMN. The answer was to use the existing IN
protocols: CS-1 (or variants) and to update it so that HPLMN can be used in the
VLPMN. This led to CAMEL which is basically a Network feature based on CAP V2 (or later versions)
and MAP V3 (or 4, etc..). CAMEL also helps with interoperability. CSPs can interwork gsmSSF, gsmSCF,
gprsSSF, gsmSRF, IP, etc.. from different vendors. Traditional "lock-in" from IN systems is now

At the time of writing CAP V2 is well proven for Roaming PrePaid Voice (telephony) calls.
Data Traffic is now charged using Diameter (DCCA).

CAMEL as a standard that is no longer evolving. The last set of standards was done with
CAMEL Phase4 via 3GPP.


CAP V1: Proof of concept. Several messages were supported
CAP V2: Similar message set that INAP / CS-2 supports. Geared up for Mobility and allows calls to be "teared down" based
on rules set with the PrePaid application
CAP V3: MO-SMS and Volume Based GPRS Charging
CAP V4: Call Party Handling (add / remove callers move_Legs)
Network-initiated call establishment (InitiateCallAttempt), Interaction with basic optimal routing, Alerting detection point
Mid-call detection point, Change of position detection point, Flexible warning tone and Tone injection and
Enhancement to call forwarding notification

With the rapid growth of the Internet, Web2.0/3.0, SIP, Diameter, etc.. it has reduced the role of CAMEL Phase 4 as a
Multimedia Standard for VHE / OSA (Virtual Home Environment).

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